协和蒋子栋:过敏的人不是娇气、矫情,TA也很无奈很受伤很绝望

医学界还没完全弄清楚过敏的发生机制,目前认为,它可能主要和遗传以及环境因素有关,你自己也做不了主。总之,目前没有特别有效的根治方法,只能达到临床控制。

(一)排查过敏原远离过敏原

过敏原宛如杂货铺,什么类型的都有,常见的过敏原基本上有以下几种:

①吸入颗粒物,如尘螨,花粉,真菌,动物皮毛,羽毛,昆虫排泄物,各种刺激性气味,棉花絮,植物花粉;

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②接触物:妈妈使用的化妆品,爸爸刷家具的油漆,还有汽油,酒精等

③疾病与药物:呼吸道感染常诱发哮喘,尤其是婴幼儿药物引起的哮喘发作有特异性和非特异性过敏两种,阿司匹林是引起非特异性过敏的最常见药物之一;

③冷空气刺激可使气道处于高反应状态,从而诱发哮喘;

④食物过敏,如牛奶,鸡蛋,鱼,虾,巧克力,花生,大豆等;

⑤剧烈运动,大多数哮喘容易在持续运动后诱发,剧烈的长跑更容易促使潜在性的哮喘发作;

⑥心理紧张,由于接触某过敏原后使哮喘发作,之后对某过敏原产生心理紧张。

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其中,身为过敏大家族的一员,食物过敏充分发挥了领导作用,占到过敏总数的90%左右。

在不同地区,因为生态环境不同,主要致敏花粉也不同,比如南京,上海,武汉等城市春季主要植物性致敏花粉来自法国梧桐。而在云南,当地引起花粉过敏的主要是油菜花和樱花

XXArbor, sycamore, white wax and other arbor pollen are the main sensitized pollen in spring in Beijing. The flowering period of these trees is concentrated from mid-March to the end of May, and it is also the first episode of allergic rhinitis in Beijing.

Another pollen season in Beijing is from the end of July to the beginning of September to the end of September and early October. The allergens are mainly pollen of native plant Artemisia, valerian (lat.) and exotic invasive plant ragweed.

Regarding pollen allergy, there is a misunderstanding here that everyone needs to recognize that there are many people who think that poplar and catkins can cause allergies, which is not what you think. Both poplar and willow are dioecious plants, and both poplar and catkins are spread by female plants, and the allergic to allergies is the pollen that is scattered when male plants are flowering.

Advantages:

For each episode, we should conduct retrospective investigation and analysis to find allergens that cause allergies. We can detect allergens through medical technology and then actively avoid them in daily life. This method is simple and effective, avoiding allergens, without taking injections, this is a fundamental measure to prevent allergies.

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Disadvantages:

Not all patients apply. Because some patients are allergic to a variety of substances, and some allergens are difficult to avoid, and some allergens can not be detected.

(two) desensitization treatment

This is a specific immunotherapy method, which means that after allergens have been identified, the patient is exposed to allergens in small doses, and the dose is gradually increased, so that the immune system of the patient's body produces immune tolerance. When the patient is exposed to an allergen again, the allergy symptoms are significantly reduced or no longer occur.

(three) drug treatment

This is a symptomatic treatment method. Commonly used drugs are antihistamines and hormonal drugs.

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xx保持皮肤清洁,防擦伤,剪短指甲,防患儿抓伤如有破溃应及时处理,防止出血和感染,患儿进行注射时要避开紫痛部位;保持床铺清洁干燥,无碎屑,避免使用热水及肥皂烫洗;适当地进行体育锻炼,增强机体抗病能力;13a1b7adc48647abb6246922edb3d2c8

饮食应以清淡为主,膳食均衡,低脂肪,低盐,嘱患者减少刺激性食物的摄入;嘱患者多饮水,增加蔬菜和新鲜水果的摄入量,避免便秘;一旦对某种食物过敏,并非绝对不能吃,而是要少量进食,让机体慢慢适应;注意休息,避免劳累,生活起居规律;保持居住环境的整洁,居室里经常带湿除尘有宝宝的家庭使用空气净化器,开窗通风,保持空气新鲜;禁止吸烟,饮酒,同时应避免吸二手烟,并尽量避免出入空气污浊的地方;

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外出时,衣物免不了沾上空气中花粉,灰尘等过敏原,所以回到家应认真清洗手和脸,去除身上可能携带的花粉,避免沾有花粉的手在触碰到身体各部位时发生皮肤过敏反应。尘螨存在于寝具,沙发,地毯,填充玩具及任何编织物上,一不小心就飘到空气中,所以一定要注意及时清理,可以拆洗的建议定期清洗。并勤洗晒衣服及晾晒被褥,减少螨虫繁殖。建议过敏患者尽量不要使用地毯,或建议每周至少两次对地毯进行真空吸尘。

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XX在烟雾和开花季节很容易引起过敏。建议尽量少出门。如果你必须外出,请带上口罩,以防止雾霾和开花季节对人体产生不利影响。秋季的温差是过敏性哮喘的好时期。要保持温暖和寒冷,避免雨淋和寒冷以及精神刺激。严重过敏的患者应该服用抗过敏药物或去常规医院进行脱敏治疗。如果您必须接触可疑的过敏原,请考虑提前6至12小时使用糖皮质激素以防止预防。养成一个习惯,用冷水洗脸,洗手,提高身体适应外部气候变化的能力。

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两种应对患者焦虑和抑郁的方法

1.音乐疗法:研究证实,轻音乐可以放松神经,使人的身心放松,并将人融入自然。当人们听他们喜欢的音乐时,人体内的免疫力将受到刺激,有效地缓解患者的焦虑,抑郁和恐惧。音乐的频率,节奏和规律的声波振动是一种物理能量。适度的体力可以使人体组织细胞和谐组织,从而有效缓解和转移患者的身体疼痛和精神焦虑和抑郁。

2.心理护理:沟通是缓解患者焦虑和抑郁的最直接方法。增加与患者的沟通和沟通时间,倾听他们的内心忧虑,给予精神支持和安慰,并帮助缓解心理压力。让他们积极地与其他同病患者交谈,让一些有经验的患者分享经验和经验,增加他们的治疗信心,积极面对疾病,从而缓解焦虑和抑郁。

及时寻求医疗建议:如果发生过敏性鼻炎,过敏性咳嗽或过敏性哮喘,请到医院就诊。特别是如果你出现焦虑和抑郁等心理问题,如果你不使用上述方法,请及时去心理科或精神科,同时进行抗过敏治疗,以免延误疾病并造成无法弥补的悲惨后果。b27037cad5344b78b7cdd75530834de8

PS:世界过敏性疾病日特别过敏性疾病和心理问题(下)

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姜子东

姜子东

首席医师,教授,博士,北京协和医院耳鼻咽喉科主任,

擅长耳鼻喉科疾病的诊断和康复,耳鼻喉科常见疾病的诊断和外科治疗

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